Epistaxis develops as a consequence of damage to blood capillaries. Often the situation is recorded in children under 10 years old and older people over 50, but nosebleeds can also be encountered at a young age.
Doctors identify a number of causes of hemorrhage, how to safely stop nosebleeds, the exact establishment of a predisposing factor is possible after the patient undergoes diagnostic measures. These manipulations are carried out in a hospital setting.
Why is there nosebleed?
The front or back wall of the respiratory organ can become a source of nasal hemorrhages. From the front side, blood separation is observed more often in children with one sinus. The leakage of blood plasma from both nostrils of the back occurs widely after injuries, penetration of third-party objects. Sometimes exudate flows down the back wall of the larynx, no external signs are observed.
If the epistaxis is plentiful, it is manifested by a black tint of feces. This is an objective reason to visit a doctor, because blood can flow both from the nostrils, and from the stomach, esophagus, especially if there is a concomitant pathology in the anamnesis.
Various diseases, injuries, psychological, emotional and physical stresses, external factors precede the rupture of blood vessels. In the perinatal period, epistaxis suggests particular predisposing causes. Capillaries burst in adolescents for external reasons or due to the puberty period.
Causes of pathology
Before stopping blood from the nose of an adult, it is necessary to determine the causes of its appearance. In most cases blood appears when:
- The presence of a foreign body,
- High pressure
- Infectious lesions.
If various irritants affect the airways, then this leads to an inflammatory reactionagainst which bleeding appears.
After surgery in the nasal cavity, drying of the mucous membranes is observed, crusts form or perforation of the nasal septum is observed. All these phenomena lead to the development of pathology.
Bleeding nose with neoplasms of a benign and malignant nature. If a person takes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for a long period, then this becomes the cause of the pathology. It develops against a diverse blood diseases which include anemia, hemophilia, myeloma, leukemia, impaired coagulability, etc.
Features of blood loss
The risk of bleeding from the sinuses, its profusion, duration, possible pain, and the ability of the blood to clot quickly depends on how close to the surface of the nasal mucosa is the network of blood vessels.
The capillaries, which are located deep, are rarely subjected to mechanical damage, but if this happened and the walls of the vessels were torn, stopping in this case the blood from the nose will be very difficult.
Capillary network of the nasal cavity
The main reason for the appearance of blood from the sinus is a violation of the integrity of the walls of the capillaries and blood vessels, which are found in large numbers under the mucous membrane in the nose. Blood enters the nasal capillaries directly from the aorta. In some people, the vessels of the nasal sinuses have a very thin structure of the walls and even with very little pressure on them, for example, during a cold, they can constantly rupture, which causes frequent nosebleeds.
Types of nosebleeds and their significance in the diagnosis of various diseases:
- Caused by slight mechanical damage to the inner walls of the sinuses, or during pressure surges. As a rule, such bleeding is scarce, quickly stops. It is not a symptom of severe pathologies in the body or diseases. People with weak mucous membranes in the nose can very often experience minor bleeding in this area.
- If nosebleeds are rare, short-lived, and scarce, this is one of the most normal events that is characterized by the release of blood from the body. The reason for their appearance is the shallow location of the vascular network under the mucous membrane.
- Excessive sinus bleeding that does not end on its own for a long time is a dangerous symptom. In some cases, heavy bleeding can cause death.
With nosebleeds, many throw their head back almost reflexively. This can not be done, because blood on the back wall of the nasopharynx will drain into the larynx, and from there it can accidentally get into the respiratory tract or into the stomach, causing vomiting. It is also wrong to lie down on a pillow.
You have to sit down, bend your head forward and press your chin to your chest.
Apply a handkerchief moistened with cold water or ice wrapped in a napkin to the nose. Cold helps to narrow the vessels, this will reduce bleeding.
Place vasoconstrictor drops in the nose against a runny nose. In an emergency, 2-3 drops of freshly squeezed lemon juice can replace them.
If the bleeding is not very strong, with your thumb and forefinger, press the wings of the nose to the nasal septum and breathe through your mouth. After 5-7 minutes, blood usually stops.
You can use the su-jock method: for 10 minutes, drag the thumb with twine or bank rubber at the level of the middle of the nail. This area reflexively corresponds to the area of the nose.
In case of severe bleeding, insert cotton turundas soaked in a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution, in sea buckthorn or rosehip oil, or simply in water, into the nostrils. Hold the swab for about half an hour. If it dries to the wall of the nose, do not try to tear it off. This can cause repeated, even more severe bleeding. Soak the swab first with water, then carefully remove it. If these measures do not lead to a blood stop, call an ambulance.
Causes of episodic bleeding
A typical case involves direct mechanical damage to the nasal mucosa.
Far from always it is a matter of gross influence. For example, about the fall, although this is also an option. It is especially common in children or athletes. It is possible damage when trying to remove the mucous membrane with your finger, other objects.
In such a situation, it is possible to identify a clear causal relationship between the phenomena. Special treatment is not required, it is only important to stop the bleeding.
On the other hand, if the impact is small enough in strength, the fragility of the vessels is most likely to occur.
It is necessary to be examined for pathologies of connective tissues, hypovitaminosis in order to verify the normal condition of the blood supplying structures.
What to do with nosebleeds
First of all, you need to determine how serious the situation is. Please note after which the bleeding occurred and how intense it is.
It happens that the blood drips a little and stops by itself. A little bleeding can also really be stopped on its own. If the blood flows violently and is accompanied by other signs (serious damage to the skin, fainting, darkening in the eyes, hysteria, or increased pressure) or bleeding is complicated by chronic diseases of the blood, cardiovascular system, you must urgently call an ambulance and follow the instructions of the telephone operator before arrival a doctor.
What to do at home?
There is a lot of literature on how to eliminate this condition with various techniques. Also, doctors can give information on how to properly stop the blood from the nose in adults. The approaches are quite numerous - from conventional tamponade to acupuncture manipulations with bioactive points. It is important to realize that those methods that are acceptable for an adult for a child are sometimes not applicable due to the anatomical structure of an undeveloped nasopharynx.
What to do if blood flows from the nose of an adult is easy to understand. But with children, parents usually immediately begin to get very nervous, almost falling into a panic state. This almost always leads to a number of errors. Accordingly, it is worthwhile to figure out how to properly manipulate any patient.
Common Causes Before Adult Hemorrhage
How to stop nosebleeds - for this it is necessary to establish causes that are as follows:
- In a healthy person, hemorrhage is able to appear after emotional, physical overstrain. Blood does not flow abundantly, stops on its own.
- Inhalation for a long time of icy, overdried oxygen. Bleeding is scanty, it stops easily.
- Overheating in the sun. Epistaxis is complemented by migraine, body aches, ringing in the ears and even clouding of consciousness.
- The presence of polyps in the nose. They are formed with the growth of the mucosa, are removed surgically. Benign neoplasms are pressing on the vessels, especially in the morning. Due to them, it is difficult for a person to breathe, there is a desire to scratch his nose inside.
- Feochromocytoma. This is a neoplasm in the adrenal glands that entails an uncontrolled release of stress hormones. They affect blood pressure.
- Traumatic lesions - hit or fall. The structures of the paranasal sinuses and cartilage are damaged. Hemorrhage is characterized by swelling, pain in the nasal cavity and adjacent tissues. If there was a bone fracture, deformation of the respiratory organ or the entire face is visually visible.
- When the bloody discharge from the nose resembles the appearance of clots of plasma, mucus, the cause is inflammation of the nasal mucosa. This happens with rhinitis, sinusitis, a runny nose of an allergic etiology, and frontal sinusitis. There is an injury to the small capillaries of the mucosa due to the inflammatory process. The condition is supplemented with hyperthermia.
- Hypertensive crisis. Epistaxis due to a significant increase in blood pressure occurs due to rupture of small capillaries.
- Irritation of the mucosa by the use of nasal aerosols. Often people abuse vasoconstrictors like Bekonase, Nazonex. They contain corticosteroids, antiallergic substances. Epistaxis also occurs in people who use medicines uncontrollably and blood clotting is prevented - Warfarin, Aspirin, Heparin.
- Aplastic anemia. Bleeding is supplemented by uterine hemorrhages, a tendency to hematomas, increased bleeding gums. The bone marrow stops the production of blood cells, this is still possible with leukemia, thrombocytopenic purpura.
- Fever. The walls of the capillaries become thin, burst.
- The presence of tumors of a different nature. A person complains of painful ulcers in the nasal cavity, a change in the shape of the respiratory organ, migraine. The exudate is transparent in appearance. Bleeding appears suddenly, or after physical overload. Discharges of a brown shade with a mucous admixture. The causes include adenocarcinoma, polyps of a malignant nature, otseoma, osteosarcoma, nasal endometriosis.
If epistaxis is caused by the presence of concomitant pathologies, their complete elimination is necessary. In the absence of medical care, the vessels will burst constantly.
Often there are hemorrhages from the nose at night. This happens due to sleep in a stuffy room, differences in atmospheric pressure and the above circumstances. At night, there is a rupture of blood vessels in the nose in people of any age and gender.
In men and women
In men, nosebleeds are more frequent than in women. The appearance of pathology is diagnosed against the background of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.
Women often have bleeding during hormonal changes. Such a pathology can also be diagnosed during the period of bearing a child. The causes of nosebleeds in women can be hormonal failure, which is often diagnosed with menopause.
What causes bleeding
A large number of blood vessels are suitable for the nose, so even the most minor injury can cause heavy bleeding. Blood from the nose occurs with a runny nose, due to drying out of the mucosa in the cold, with dry air in the room. This condition can also occur with poor blood coagulability, as well as those who take acetylsalicylic acid and other blood-thinning drugs. Often the cause of bleeding is high blood pressure.
Intense heat exposure, sunstroke
A typical problem in the hot summer months. As a result of the influence of the thermal factor, overheating of the head, facial area, an increase in blood pressure is observed.
The vessels are dilated, filled with blood. Due to excessive load, they burst, and the outflow of fluid connective tissue occurs. As a rule, it is thicker than usual, including against the background of dehydration.
As with injuries, systematic therapy is not required. It is enough to exercise caution and not go out into the open sun on hot days without insurance in the idea of correctly selected clothes, etc.
Causes of nosebleeds
Take a look at this list. Each of the items can cause nosebleeds.
- Overheating of the body
- Reduced blood coagulation
- Weak vessels
- Nose injury
- Inflammatory processes in the nasal passage,
- High blood pressure,
- Pathology of the cardiovascular system,
- Serious illnesses, such as leukemia or anemia,
- Decreased platelet production in the body,
- Taking medications
- The presence of neoplasms in the nasal passage.
In an adult
For proper exposure, you need to understand how to stop the nose from bleeding in an adult. Given the most common methods, it is best to identify the main, most effective and safest of them. Here's how to stop the bleeding:
- The correct position is taken - sitting, bowing his head slightly, resting his palms on his knees.
- If the problem is caused by overheating, cooling of the patient is required:
- cold applications are applied or ice wrapped in cellophane is applied,
- you can try to dissolve the ice to narrow the vessels, if the blood from the nose still does not stop.
- Next, the nasal passage is necessarily clamped with two fingers.
The duration of retention and continuation of the above actions is approximately 7-15 minutes. If the bleeding slows down when clamped, the actions are carried out correctly. If the expected effect did not follow, then you should try to move your fingers lower or higher.
At high blood pressure
The occurrence of bleeding can be observed against the background of a sharp increase in blood pressure. This condition is characterized by increased blood flow and increased vascular tone.
Since the vessels cannot withstand the load, they burst. The pressure at which blood flows from the nose directly depends on the individual characteristics of the patient's body. In most cases, this condition is diagnosed during increase indicators to 100/150.
The most common cause of sudden onset of sinus bleeding is a rapid jump in pressure and the development of a hypertensive crisis. When the pressure rises to a critical state, blood leaving the sinuses removes tension from the vessels of the brain, thereby preventing the development of an extensive stroke. As a rule, this phenomenon becomes systematic in people who have vascular diseases and are prone to increased pressure. Most commonly found in older people.
Bleeding in the nose caused by hypertension stops on its own as soon as the pressure returns to normal. But with its constant occurrence, it is necessary to conduct a complete diagnosis of the body in order to detect the causes that provoke sharp pressure surges.
Humidify the air of the room with the help of a steam generator, you can also put wet towels on the battery, spray the room with a spray gun. They help moisturize air and indoor plants.
If crusts often form in the nose, periodically drip 2-3 drops of sea buckthorn oil or rose hip oil into the nose.
With frequent bleeding caused by increased fragility of blood vessels, ascorbic acid and rutin are indicated.
Herbal teas from nettles, yarrow, poultry, plantain, leaves and fruits of sea buckthorn, as well as a 5-10% solution of calcium chloride, help to improve blood coagulation. It is taken 1-2 teaspoon 2-3 times a day after meals. This drug reduces the permeability of the vascular wall.
Bleeding caused by poor blood coagulation can be associated with a lack of vitamin K. Its source is spinach, lettuce, all kinds of cabbage, avocados, bananas, wheat bran, soy, meat, eggs, milk and dairy products, olive oil.
Local factors for the appearance of nosebleeds:
1. Injury - bumps, falls
2. Contact with foreign bodies
3. A sharp blowing of the nose, damage to the mucous membrane with nails
4. Dry air in the room
5. Inflammatory diseases. With rhinitis, sinusitis, sinusitis, crusts are formed in the nose, traumatic to the mucous membrane, and mild bleeding occurs
6. Allergy - blood vessels rupture from blood flow
7. The use of steroid and hormonal nasal sprays
8. Deformation of the nasal cartilage
9. Atrophied mucosa
10. The appearance of tumors
11. Inhalation of narcotic powders (cocaine is especially dangerous)
12. Operations - plastic and after injuries.
What may precede nosebleeds
Sometimes, before the appearance of nosebleeds, the head begins to hurt, discomfort in the nasal cavity is felt, dizziness or tinnitus occurs. The presence of at least one of these signs may indicate an early onset of bleeding.
This situation can happen in everyone, but most of the questions this situation causes when it occurs in a small child, during pregnancy or at high pressure.
The child has
In pediatrics, such bleeding is also a common occurrence. Almost everyone knows how to stop nosebleeds in adults. In children, manipulations are carried out with some differences. This is explained by the structure of the nasopharynx, which is not yet fully formed. Tissues are injured quite easily, and therefore symptoms can manifest themselves regularly. Accordingly, there is a certain set of actions that need to be carried out in order to stop blood from the nose:
- It is important to encourage and soothe the child, which will reduce tissue tension in the nasopharynx, pressure and significantly reduce blood loss.
- Further, as far as possible, plant or at least give a close position so that the head is above the level of the heart. The same applies to infants, which should be positioned so that the head does not tilt back.
- The nose must be clamped with two fingers for at least 10 minutes.
- A cold compress is made.
- Tamponade is used if the blood does not stop even after 10-20 minutes. The bandage is rolled up and inserted into the nose. The use of cotton is prohibited.
What to do if the blood from the nose does not stop, only the doctor decides. It is more correct to apply a specific drug therapy, since the symptoms become extremely dangerous.
You should be aware that the child may try to speak, scream, cry, swallow. Accordingly, it is precisely in the powers of the parents to influence him, to calm him down. It is impossible to give food even after stopping blood loss for another hour, and drinking - about 20-30 minutes. What is the best way to stop blood from the nose, then the doctor will tell you at the reception.
In situations involving children under one year of age and infants, the issue of first aid should become acute. Only such specialists fully understand why it is going and how to stop the blood from the nose correctly. You must be aware that the symptom is considered dangerous for the patient with especially intense manifestations.
Heroin or cocaine patients suffer. Both substances have the ability to provoke a gradual, but steady narrowing of the vessels of the nasal mucosa.
Over time, insufficient blood flow for this reason causes atrophic processes, capillaries become fragile and break from the slightest physical effect. It is enough to rub your nose to provoke bleeding.
However, this does not happen immediately. It takes from a few weeks to a couple of months to develop a disorder. At an early stage, while the mucous membrane is normal, the frequency of bleeding is minimal.
Or they are completely absent. The problem becomes relevant after a while and progresses as drug use continues.
Just giving up heroin or cocaine to restore the functions of the nasal mucosa is no longer enough. At a certain point, the process becomes irreversible.
The help of an otolaryngologist is required in order to somehow compensate for the results of addiction.
In older people
The causes of nosebleeds in older people may be various diseases. At this age, people are often diagnosed with hypertension, which is accompanied by an increase in blood pressure.
Pathology can be diagnosed with heart failure. In older people, intracranial pressure often rises. This causes the nose to bleed. With atherosclerotic changes, the vessels lose their elasticity and strength, which becomes the cause of the pathological process.
The causes in adults can be a variety of diseases. That is why when the first symptoms of pathology appear you need to seek help from a doctor, who will prescribe the necessary therapy.
When do I need help from a doctor?
Profuse and often recurring bleeding is an occasion to consult a therapist or otolaryngologist. If the problem is a defect in the vascular wall, it is usually prescribed cauterization of the vessel using liquid nitrogen, laser or radio wave surgery. Bleeding caused by high blood pressure, especially can not be ignored, they signal an increased risk of strokes.
Mechanical damage to the nose and sinuses is one of the common causes of bleeding in children. The strength of the effect on the mucous membrane of the sinuses of each person is different and depends on the degree of strength of the walls of the capillary vessels. For some people, it is enough to clear the nose during rhinitis to disrupt the integrity of the vascular walls, and for some, nosebleeds can occur only with very strong external forces. It is very difficult to stop bleeding during nose injuries.
Mechanical damage to the sinus
The deeper the nasal capillaries are located, the harder it is to injure, but when they rupture, extremely severe bleeding is provoked, to stop which, at times, it is necessary to provide assistance in a medical facility. In young children, bleeding can be caused by the frequent use of drops to facilitate breathing with a runny nose.
Nasal bleeding in a child can be caused by a person touching the thin sheath of the nasal sinus with his fingernail and damaging the thin capillary.
Why does nosebleed occur in children
|Mechanical damage||It is possible to traumatize the nose with your fingers, penetration into it of foreign objects - toys, peas, small parts. Sometimes bleeding is preceded by swimming in ponds, insects getting into the sinuses|
|Runny nose||Bloody exudate contains mucus|
|Hemophilia or other blood clotting disorders||Regular vascular ruptures occur, complemented by a tendency to bruise|
|Inhalation of dry air||This happens during the heating season when the air in the room is too dry.|
Epistaxis occurs with such systemic causes:
1. Violations of the heart and blood vessels
2. Pressure increase
3. Vegetative dystonia
4. Diseases of the blood with a violation of its coagulability
5. Taking blood thinners
6. Reducing the elasticity of connective tissue and blood vessels due to a lack of vitamins C, PP and K
7. Alcohol abuse
8. Overheating in the sun, fever
9. Barotraumas - sudden changes in pressure at height or depth
10. Hormonal imbalance - during adolescence, pregnancy, menopause
11. Overwork, lack of sleep, stress
12. Hereditary fragility of blood vessels
In many cases, nosebleeds appear against a background of headache, tinnitus, and dizziness.
How to stop the blood from the nose in young children
- To begin with, the child must be seated so that blood can flow out freely.
- Ice should be placed on the bridge of the nose, neck or forehead. If it is not, you can take any cold product from the refrigerator. Legs should be warm at this time.
- Press the wing of the nostril, from which the blood flows, to the septum for 15 seconds. During this time, bleeding should stop.
- If the blood flows violently, place a swab in the nostril that is moistened with a small amount of hydrogen peroxide (just salt water is also suitable), or use vasoconstrictor drops.
To prevent this condition, it is important for the child to more often be in the fresh air (in any weather). It helps to strengthen vessels swimming and hardening. Humidify the air periodically in the room where the child is most likely to spend time. It is important that his diet is varied and contains all the necessary trace elements and vitamins.
In young children, nosebleeds often cause frequent picking in the nose. Take care that the child does not. If the cause of the problem is physical activity, it is necessary to review the daily routine of the baby and reduce them.
Use of certain medications
The use of anticoagulants, anti-inflammatory non-steroidal origin, oral contraceptives, sometimes antibiotics and vasoconstrictor drops can provoke a temporary violation of the function of blood vessels and their structure.
They become brittle, permeability increases. Blood flows from the nose due to anatomical abnormalities on the part of the capillaries.
This is a temporary phenomenon, after the cancellation of the drug provoking such a reaction, everything comes back to normal quite quickly (no more than a week). In rare cases, specialized correction of the condition is required under the supervision of an otolaryngologist.
Bleeding from the nose against the background of the use of drugs is an episodic, intermittent phenomenon. Correction involves only the abandonment of the drug, which became the culprit of the disorder.
In some cases, medications provoke the current pathological process, “pull” it out. In such a situation, the problem will not go anywhere even after the correction of the therapeutic course.
First aid for nosebleedsand consists in performing certain actions:
- The patient's head must be positioned above the level of the heart.
- The patient is recommended to ensure complete peace, as with excitement, an increase in bleeding is diagnosed.
- It is necessary to take a piece of cotton wool and wind a ball out of it. It is wetted in a solution that has vasoconstrictor properties. The ideal option in this case is oxymetazoline. The ball is recommended to be placed in the nostril.
- Soft parts of the nose must be clamped with your fingers and held for 5 minutes.
- It is recommended to apply ice to the nose and cheeks, which is pre-wound into the fabric.
First aid may be to use hemostatic sponge. The main component is cattle blood plasma. Take a piece of sponge and apply to the problem area for 5 minutes. This tool helps to increase blood coagulation. Thanks to the sponge, a protective film appears, which contributes to the arrest of blood.
If all of the above measures are not effective, then you must seek the help of a doctor. Only a specialist knows how to stop the nose from bleeding in an adult, which will eliminate the possibility of complications.
Causes of nosebleeds in pregnant women
During pregnancy, nasal hemorrhage is most often observed in the 1st and 3rd trimester.
The reasons are as follows:
|Lack of vitamins||Usually there is a lack of calcium, vitamin K, ascorbic acid|
|Increased blood supply in every organ||The mucous membranes become thin, the number of capillaries increases. Any damage can cause rupture of blood vessels.|
|Blood pressure drops||Epistaxis is accompanied by severe pain in the head. The same thing happens with those women who before pregnancy did not suffer from hypertension.|
|Mucosal changes||Due to hormonal changes, the state of the nasal mucosa changes, it swells, loosens, and the vessels lose their elasticity|
Heavy bleeding that stops without problems and appears once a week is harmless. You still need to notify the doctor in order to exclude potentially dangerous conditions for the mother and fetus.
How to stop nosebleeds in the perinatal period is the same as in other cases. The only difference is the use of drugs. Not all medications are allowed, therefore, it is recommended that the doctor consult on self-stop hemorrhage.
Diseases of the nasopharynx
Diseases of the nose and pharynx can be chronic or in the acute stage of development. Both can provoke profuse bleeding from the sinuses. The cause of the occurrence is an inflammatory process on the mucous membranes, which leads to a weakening of the walls of blood vessels. Bleeding in this case can cause even the smallest pressure, for example, with a sneeze. Often, the mucous membrane is injured by personal hygiene products that are used for rhinitis.
Sinus bleeding is characteristic of the following diseases:
- Rhinitis of an atrophic form, in which the nasal mucosa becomes inflamed with its subsequent destruction.
- Erosion on the inner walls of the sinuses.
- Chronic sinusitis is a persistent inflammation of the mucous membrane caused by frequent sinusitis or frontal sinusitis.
- Acute respiratory infections, especially with flu.
- Severe hypothermia, or overheating of the body.
- The regular use of nasal drops, which constrict the vessels, leads to their fragility, and, as a result, to constant small bleeding.In this case, in order to get rid of the disease, it is necessary to abandon the use of nasal drops, or replace with a new remedy for nasal congestion.
Blood from the nose in the morning
Epistaxis in the morning, and not during the day, is more often observed in men. Causes - septum curvature during injuries or atrophy of blood vessels due to overwork, smoking, harmful working conditions.
More serious problems are possible - polyps in the nose, systemic blood diseases, therefore, with constant bleeding in the morning, especially with pain, it is advisable to consult a specialist.
How to stop nosebleeds during pregnancy
Sit so that it flows freely from the nasal cavity. Follow the instructions below.
First, clamp both nostrils for 15-20 seconds. If this does not help, try inserting a wet swab dipped in salt water or hydrogen peroxide into your nose.
The ice attached to the bridge of the nose helps well. You can press the upper lip and hold your finger like that for 20 seconds. During this time, bleeding should stop. Otherwise, it is recommended to call a doctor.
Tumor tumors in the nasopharynx always cause bleeding. As a rule, it occurs absolutely suddenly, or during physical exertion, as well as when cleaning the nose during rhinitis. In the presence of neoplasms, bleeding from the nose of a brown color, which has a mucous consistency, can be observed before bleeding.
The main types of cancer that provoke nosebleeds in men and women:
- The polyp is malignant.
- Oseoma, osteosarcoma and other types of tumors that occur on bone tissue.
- Endometriosis of the nasal form.
Unstable environmental pressure
In everyday life, people do not encounter a similar problem. Jumps in the indicator are observed when changing geographical data, topography. H
Most often, divers, climbers, professionals and amateurs encounter this kind of trouble. Usually this is a one-time problem, so there is no reason for concern. It is enough to exercise maximum caution in the future.
Epistaxis can be part of something more: for example, decompression during a sharp ascent from a great depth and a pressure surge.
Specialized treatment is not required, except in cases of systemic damage to the body.
How can I deal quickly?
Now you should make out what to do if blood has gone from the nose. You can eliminate the symptom as quickly as possible using the presented algorithm:
- The patient’s condition is assessed: it determines the probable cause (trauma, foreign body, inflammation, overheating, etc.), concomitant symptoms (discoloration of the skin, shortness of breath, increased heart rate, etc.), general well-being.
- A cold compress is applied to the nose during frontal bleeding. Thanks to this, it will be possible to narrow the vessels and slightly reduce the swelling of the mucous membranes. The duration of exposure is no more than 15 minutes.
- Next, you need to insert a swab into the nose. It is pre-impregnated with either peroxide or hemostatic composition.
- Doctors with moderate and severe conditions anemize the mucous membranes in the affected area using ephedrine or adrenaline. Self-medication is dangerous to use.
- If the effect of the measures taken is absent, then the front type tamponade is carried out.
The specified measure of exposure often creates a positive effect with posterior nosebleeds. In the absence of a positive effect, posterior tamponade is done. If the patient has no experience or the bleeding is intense, then it is better to decide what to do, directly from the doctor in the office.
Causes of nosebleeds in the elderly
The causes of epistaxis in the elderly are all factors as in adults, but with certain nuances:
- The capillaries of the posterior parts of the nose lose elasticity, possibly posterior bleeding. Exudate drains into the larynx, there is a risk of significant blood loss without external symptoms. The situation is life threatening.
- Atrophic rhinitis. The condition is inherent in women after menopause. The mucous membranes shrink, dry out, and fragility of the vascular walls increases.
- Hypertonic disease. Hemorrhage occurs with physical stress, changes in atmospheric pressure, and hypertensive crisis.
- Regular use of Aspirin, Tolectin, Naprosin, Ibuprofen.
In older people, rupture of the nasal capillaries is a particularly dangerous phenomenon and requires immediate medical attention.
If observed frequent bleeding from the nose of an adult, it is necessary to carry out their treatment. In this case, patients are prescribed hemostatic drugs.
The choice of a specific medication is carried out in accordance with the severity of the disease.
If the patient minor bleeding is diagnosed, it is recommended that several teaspoons of 10 percent calcium chloride be taken.
Thanks to this tool, the effect of hemostatic agents is enhanced, permeability is reduced, and vascular wall contractility is improved.
In order to stop epistaxis, it is necessary to take certain drugs:
- Vikasola. Thanks to this tool, the effect of hemostatic agents is increased. The introduction of the drug is carried out intramuscularly. The duration of treatment should be no more than 4 days.
- Ethamsyl sodium solution. The action of the drug is aimed at platelet function enhancement. The drug does not affect the blood coagulation process. That is why its use can be carried out for a long period. The drug can be taken orally or intramuscularly.
- Aminocaproic acid. Thanks to the medicine, the cessation of processes that thin the blood is provided. The drug is administered intravenously. If the patient has abnormalities in intravascular coagulation, medication is not recommended.
Blood from the nose during pregnancy
During pregnancy, under the influence of hormones, the total blood volume in the body increases and the load on the heart and blood vessels increases.
In a woman in an “interesting position”, the nasal mucosa becomes thinner and brittle, possibly increasing pressure - as a result, blood flows from the nose. This must be reported to the observing physician - control is necessary, high blood pressure is dangerous for the fetus.
After childbirth, usually everything returns to normal.
Another reason that frequent, sudden bleeding from the sinuses in adults can be observed is various blood diseases, in which the coagulation process is disturbed. Frequent bleeding with hemostasis is a disease, during which the blood changes its consistency and becomes too fluid.
Circulatory system diseases, for which nose bleeding is one of the symptoms:
- Hemophilia in children and adults is a congenital anomaly in which blood does not clot.
- Regular intake of medical drugs that thin the blood.
- Purple thrombocytopenic form.
- Violation of blood coagulation in women during gestation.
- Strong intoxication of the body.
In most cases, it is bleeding from the nose that is the first sign of the development of diseases of the circulatory system, associated, for the most part, with an altered state and consistency of blood.
Of all the diseases of the circulatory system, hemophilia is one of the most dangerous. In the presence of this disease in the body, even the smallest cut, or a light blow with a limb with the formation of a bruise, can cause severe external or internal bleeding, which cannot be stopped without medical help. Hemophilia deaths are very common.
Excessive reflex exhalation can provoke a rupture of the vessel and an intensive outflow of fluid connective tissue.
Not always this indicates the presence of any diagnosis. Although this is possible.
In a single episode, there is no reason for concern. But if sneezing causes nosebleeds constantly, there are reasons to consult a hematologist or ENT doctor (it is better to both, in turn).
If possible, control the strength of the reflex expiration. This will reduce the risks of undesirable consequences.
At the same time, it is absolutely impossible to sneeze “into oneself”. This can lead to stroke, cerebral or eye bleeding.
First aid, if not just walking, but running
Regardless of the severity of blood loss, it is mandatory to provide first aid. But the speed and quality of the manipulations with light, medium and massive bleeding are especially important. In the first case, about 500 ml flows out, in the second - 1000-1400 ml, and in the third - over 1400 ml. If in the first case there is an opportunity to cope without outside help, then with severe manifestations without first aid, they cannot be eliminated.
After calling the service before her arrival, the necessary assistance is provided to the patient. An approximate algorithm of what to do if blood runs from the nose:
- With increased bleeding, it is recommended that tightly folded turundas be placed in the cavity. They are pre-dipped in vegetable (preferably sea buckthorn or rosehip) oil, or in weak peroxide. In the absence of these funds, you need to moisten them in clean water.
- Turunds should be kept for half an hour, waiting until the blood stops flowing.
- Next, carefully pull them out. If the tampons are attached to the mucosa, they can not be torn off. In this case, it is first necessary to soak them with water, dripping it onto the outside of the turunda.
If the inserted tampons are pulled out sharply, then the mucous membrane with the vessels is injured - as a result of stopping nosebleeds, it will not increase, on the contrary, it will intensify. If the measures taken have not led to positive results, then only the emergency doctor will have the experience and qualifications to stop nosebleeds medically and with the help of special tools.
The first actions with bleeding
If there is bleeding from the nose, you need to know how to stop it yourself. You can resort to the help of loved ones.
- Try to calm down with deep breaths. EThis manipulation will reduce the emotional outburst, heartbeat, high blood pressure. These factors increase blood loss. If you can’t calm down, count to 10 mentally.
- Sit in a comfortable position, tilt your head forward. If it is thrown back, the blood masses can drain down the nasopharynx, which is fraught with vomiting, respiratory distress. Insert neatly cotton turundas into the nose.
How to hold your head to stop nosebleeds
Sometimes these measures are not enough. If the bleeding does not stop, the situation is fraught with dangerous consequences.
Blood from the nose in children
Why does blood come from the nose in children:
1. Age-related vascular and mucosal malformations
2. Dryness and crusts in the nose due to suffocating air
3. Injury - strokes, picking crusts with a fingernail
4. Ingestion of foreign bodies - the child can put a small toy, button, bead, pea into the nostril
5. The use of vasoconstrictive sprays and drops
6. Stress when sneezing or coughing
7. Polyps and tumors in the nose
8. Anomalies of the nasal septum
11. Pressure increase
12. Diseases caused by viruses and bacteria
13. Pathologies that violate blood coagulation and vascular permeability
14. Hormonal bursts during puberty.
It's about the individual characteristics of the body. When using air transport, unstable barometric pressure is observed on board.
This can cause vascular rupture and blood flow from the nose in some patients.
It is possible that the cause of capillary pathology, or other violations. You need to go through a complete diagnosis. Especially if the problem arises systematically. Although you can notice it only with frequent flights.
How to prevent nosebleeds
It is not difficult to establish how to stop nosebleeds, but it is important to remember how to prevent the rupture of blood capillaries. Prevention is to prevent the factors causing their perforation.
- Humidify indoor air. Use special moisturizers, or take a wet towel, put it on the battery.
- Avoidance of traumatic situations. To use icy snowshoeing, not to take part in conflicts, mass fights.
- Quitting smoking, drinking alcohol. These habits adversely affect the state of the capillaries.
- Take vitamin K, calcium. Useful trace elements strengthen the vascular walls and the entire body.
- Treat the underlying pathology in a timely manner. It is necessary to withstand the full course of treatment for any disease. In chronic diseases, periodically examined.
- During take-off on an airplane, use a sucking candy. It will help reduce pressure on the capillaries.
- To improve the condition of the mucous membranes, lubricate them with petroleum jelly or vegetable oil.
- Monitor blood plasma coagulation when using drugs that affect this factor.
It is impossible to completely protect yourself from nasal hemorrhages, but it is quite possible to prevent them as much as possible. Regardless of the cause of the phenomenon, it is worth leading a healthy lifestyle.
What if the symptom manifests itself often or every day?
With a single occurrence, it is quite simple to carry out manipulations related to the provision of assistance, and then wait until the damaged mucosa with the vessel is restored. If blood flows from the nose often enough, then the only true answer to the question of what to do in this case will be to think about the need to contact a doctor.
To understand what to do with nosebleeds, a therapist, an ENT specialist or a pediatrician can help. Always with similar manifestations, a detailed examination is prescribed. Further, based on the results, the doctor decides how to stop the blood from the nose:
- vitamin preparations
- hormone therapy
- anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs),
- drugs for hypertension (ACE inhibitors, diuretics, beta-blockers and others).
Symptomatic therapy will help reduce the severity of manifestations and create conditions for the restoration of damaged vessels, mucous membranes. Vasoconstrictive sprays are commonly used to help relieve swelling and reduce blood loss. Why is high cholesterol dangerous?
Is nose bleeding dangerous?
Usually, epistaxis is an intimidating, but relatively safe phenomenon for health. It develops when blood vessels are damaged spontaneously or with an injury.
• Anterior - with localization in the anterior-lower part of the nasal septum, occurs in 90-95% of cases. Blood drips or flows in a weak stream, stops quickly
• Posterior - occurring in the middle and posterior parts of the nasal cavity. It is observed much less often, but requires compulsory medical care: blood pours in a stream, it is difficult to stop it, vomiting of blood is possible when it is swallowed.
The danger is heavy or prolonged bleeding. Dizziness, weakness, pallor, flickering of flies appear, cold sweat appears, the pulse weakens and the pulse quickens, the patient may lose consciousness. When such symptoms appear, you can not hesitate - you need urgent help from doctors. If blood flows from the nose every day, a headache appears, medical consultation is also necessary.
When to see a doctor
You should seek medical help in certain variations of nasal hemorrhage, they threaten human health.
- If the blood plasma flows abundantly, it does not stop after tried stopping measures for 20 minutes.
- Hemorrhage is caused by malfunctions in the process of coagulation of blood plasma, diabetes, increased blood pressure.
- A person uses Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Heparin on an ongoing basis.
- Blood exudate drains intensively along the back of the larynx, causing bloody vomiting.
- There was a clouding of consciousness.
- The patient lost more than 200 milliliters of blood plasma.
- Hemorrhages often recur.
An otolaryngologist will advise you on how to properly stop nosebleeds that are characterized by the symptoms or suggested causes. If the patient is hard to walk, or he lost consciousness, they call emergency care. Even once appeared epistaxis should be a reason for visiting a doctor.
Article design: Vladimir the Great
What to do if it flows for a long time or constantly?
How to stop the blood from the nose, if it does not stop, is already clear. Key actions:
- Attach the correct position.
- Pinch your nose.
- Apply cold.
Manipulations usually last about 10-30 minutes. Long or regular bleeding usually indicates significant abnormalities in the nasopharynx, creating a real threat to health. If there are alarming signs such as discoloration of the skin, an attack of angina pectoris, loss of consciousness, while the symptoms persist for a long time, then what should be done if blood flows from the nose should be decided only by an emergency doctor, because it is not possible to carry out all the necessary manipulations at home .
You should be aware that massive blood loss can significantly affect the functioning of organs, and sometimes leads to death of a person. Therefore, under the circumstances, only a specialist is able to implement the correct algorithm of actions in case of ignorance of what to do if the blood cannot be stopped. In addition to medications that allow you to stop the process of blood loss from the nose, surgery is usually required.
How to stop blood from the nose at high pressure
As mentioned above, sometimes nosebleeds appear against the background of high blood pressure. In order to stop the flow of blood from the nose with hypertension or a sudden increase in pressure, you must first sit down or lie down (the head should be raised). Next, insert a cotton wool in the nose, dipping it before it in hydrogen peroxide or salt water, and calmly sit or lie down for 5-10 minutes. If the problem persists, call an ambulance.
What could make matters worse
When you try to stop the nose from bleeding, some factors can aggravate the condition.
- Blood must not be allowed to enter the respiratory tract. To do this, lying on the bed, raise the head with a high pillow. It is also not recommended to throw your head back. Blood must be spit.
- When lying down, raising the legs leads to the redirection of blood towards the head, and this can provoke new bleeding from the nose. Avoid this posture when stopping blood.
- Strong anxiety and drinking tea or coffee raises blood pressure. Try to calm down and do not drink these drinks to avoid an increase in blood flow.
- At the time of stopping blood, a crust forms in the nose, which, like a cork, stops bleeding. If you try to blow your nose immediately after this, blood may again go. So, do not rush to bow out.
When to see a doctor
Medical assistance is necessary if:
- When you tried to stop the nose from bleeding, you felt a wound or some kind of damage in the nasal cavity,
- Bleeding lasts more than 15 minutes, and you can’t stop it,
- You have frequent nosebleeds (repeatedly during the week, for no apparent reason).
Alternative methods of stopping nosebleeds
Standard recommendations were listed above, but there is the opportunity to turn to effective traditional medicine.
Try to drip the nose with freshly squeezed lemon juice, a few drops in each nostril. You can dip a cotton swab in lemon juice and insert it into your nose for several minutes. Change it if necessary.
If there is nettle at hand (let's say you are in nature), squeeze juice out of it and insert a cotton swab moistened with this juice into your nose.
Some people successfully stop nasal blood su-jok. To do this, you need to tie the thumb around the middle of the nail (use a rubber band or twine for this) and hold it for 10 minutes. According to the su-jok technique, a reflex zone corresponding to the area of the nose is located in this place.
Due to increased air dryness, nosebleeds can also occur. For example, when heating is turned on, the air in apartments and offices becomes much drier than at other times. Improving the situation will help a properly selected humidifier, placing wet towels on the batteries, spraying the room with a spray bottle, frequent airing or indoor plants.
When the nasal mucosa dries, crusts may form on it. To avoid this phenomenon, try to instill it periodically with 2-3 drops of rosehip oil or sea buckthorn oil.
If bleeding in your case is associated with increased fragility of blood vessels, consult your doctor. The vessels of rutin and ascorbic acid are well strengthened.
With reduced blood coagulability, it is recommended to drink tea from herbs (yarrow, plantain, nettle, bird highlander, fruits and leaves of sea buckthorn). To reduce the permeability of the walls of blood vessels helps 5-10% solution of calcium chloride. It is necessary to take it after a meal, 2-3 times a day in a teaspoon.
Blood can also clot poorly if vitamin K is lacking. Use lettuce, spinach, bananas, all kinds of cabbage, avocados, soy, wheat bran, eggs, meat, olive oil and dairy foods. And you will help your body cope with this problem.
Holding the front tamponade
Nasal swab with bleeding is used if the drugs are ineffective. The procedure is performed if bleeding is observed in the anterior nasal cavity.
Front tamponade requires certain manipulations:
- Initially, it is necessary to anesthetize the nasal cavity. For this purpose, a 10-solution of lidocaine, which is produced in the form of a spray, is used. Also, 2% dicain is buried in the nasal cavity.
- A gauze swab is inserted into the nostril, the length of which is 2 centimeters and a width of 1.5 centimeters.
- Before introducing turunda into the nasal cavity, it is necessary moisten in a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution. With its help, the process of thrombosis is accelerated. You can also use aminocaproic acid, which ensures the stopping of bleeding.
- Turunda can be used to wet Hemophobin or thrombin.
- After the introduction of turunda, a sling-like bandage is applied to the nose.
- Turunda should be in the nasal cavity for several days. Aminocaproic acid is injected daily into the swab. If a particularly severe case is observed, then the mucous membrane in the nasal cavity can remain for a week.
If the problem is resolved, then the turunda must be removed. It is first necessary to moisten it with hydrogen peroxide.
Holding back tamponade
If severe bleeding occurs from the posterior nasal cavity, it is recommended to perform posterior tamponade.
Manipulation is carried out using sterile gauze swabs, the size of which is 2 by 2.5 centimeters. Before manipulation it is necessary to carry out intramuscular analgesia.
The ideal option in this case is a lytic mixture. It includes Promedol, Analgin and Diphenhydramine. A thin catheter is inserted into the nostril until it enters the nasopharynx.
The catheter is pulled out through the mouth with tweezers. A tampon is attached to the end of the catheter, which is pulled into the nasal cavity. The swab is held by two threads that go out through the nasal passages. The third thread must be brought out and glued to the cheek with a patch. To ensure high manipulation efficiency, it is recommended to simultaneously conduct anterior tamponade.
Patients are advised to wear tampons. within a few days. If necessary, the duration of the manipulation is increased to 6 days. With posterior tamponade, the patient is recommended to take sulfanilamide drugs, as well as antibiotics, which will eliminate the possibility of the development of infectious processes. Threads are used to remove tampons.
In most cases, you can deal with the problem yourself. What to do if there is blood from the nose:
1. To provide the patient with a resting state in a half-sitting position
2. Legs should be spread apart and lean forward slightly so that blood flows freely.
3. Ensure free access of air - to unfasten a belt, a tight collar, a bra
4. Cold must be applied to the nose - a wet towel, ice
5. Blood entering the nasopharynx should be spit
6. If the blood runs poorly, you can squeeze the wings of the nose a little and hold for 5-7 minutes, until the blood stops - when squeezed, the blood flow will slow down, a clot will form and clog the damaged vessel
7. If the bleeding is severe, soak cotton swabs with hydrogen peroxide or vasoconstrictor drops and insert into the nasal passages
8. In case of bleeding due to dry crusts in the nose, they need to be softened by lubricating the nostrils with petroleum jelly or sunflower oil
9. If the blood went due to overheating, the victim should be transferred to the shade and a cold compress should be applied to the nose. Heat stroke requires hospitalization
10. In case of loss of consciousness, the patient should be put on his back with his head turned to the side and call the doctors.
What to do DO NOT:
1. Throwing your head back - this leads to leakage of blood into the throat and vomiting
2. Lean strongly - this will increase bleeding
3. Blowing your nose - this prevents clogging of the injured vessel with a formed blood clot
4. Lie down horizontally - the head must be turned to the side.
If the child’s nose bleeds, there is pain, no need to panic, scaring the baby. You need to act the same way as when assisting adults, but call the doctors after 10 minutes if the blood does not stop, and after 5 minutes - with severe bleeding.
Folk remedies for nosebleeds
It is possible to stop blood from the nose using herbal recipes:
1. Wet cotton swabs with nettle juice and insert them into the nasal passages
2. Grind fresh yarrow, soak tampons with juice and insert into nostrils
3. Boil the bark of viburnum (10 g per glass of water), insist, moisten the swabs and insert them into the nose.
Foreign body in the nasal passages
The problem is mainly encountered by children. With irritation and damage to the mucous membranes with toys, food, vascular destruction is observed.
Especially if a foreign object is stuck and attempts are made to roughly remove it.
The reason applies all to the same injuries, requires medical correction this very minute. After retrieving the object, you can forget about the violation.
All the moments described above are situational. Because the problem has no constant expression. After eliminating the provoking factor and avoiding meeting with him in the future, everything remains normal.
Causes of frequent nosebleeds
Allergic reactions. Regardless of the severity of such a vascular destruction is possible.
This is the result of mucosal irritation in the system with tissue damage locally by a toxic substance, histamine. It is actively produced with an immune response like this.
Allergies can be detected by a number of signs. Bleeding is not the only symptom, much less the most frequent.
- Itching of the nasal mucosa.
- Burning sensation, foreign body, pressure.
- The exit of a large amount of transparent mucus.
During the diagnosis, a clear connection can be found between the response and the effect of the alleged allergen. Outside the interaction, no vascular destruction is also observed.
When do you need help from doctors
An urgent need to call an ambulance if it is impossible to stop nosebleed on its own, it lasts for more than 15-20 minutes in adults or becomes stronger, pallor, chills, severe pain, numbness of limbs or loss of consciousness appear.
Doctors also need help if:
1. There was pain, swelling, deformed bone, there is a suspicion of a nasal fracture
2. Bleeding is accompanied by headache, visual impairment, dizziness.
3. Blood goes after taking blood thinners or hormonal drugs
4. Perhaps the presence of a foreign body in the nose of a child.
Before the appearance of doctors, the patient needs to ensure peace.
Pathologies from the structure and activity of platelets
They are relatively rare. We are talking either about a sufficient number of shaped blood cells with impaired functionality, or about their obvious meager number, which does not provide for the satisfaction of the body's needs. Both options are potentially dangerous.
In the first case, they speak of thrombocytopenia. It occurs as a result of congenital factors most often. It is accompanied not only by nosebleeds.
Hemorrhage can affect the joints, skin. However, the symptoms are nonspecific, which makes diagnosis “by eye” impossible.
The second case is thrombocytopathy. It is considered a more dangerous form of the pathological process. Requires correction urgently. Because it can provoke prolonged, potentially fatal bleeding.
The clinic is non-specific in all cases.
Correction is carried out under the supervision of a hematologist, regular laboratory tests are prescribed to determine the dynamics of the process, the effect of treatment on the state of the vessels.
It is not always possible to help radically, but in most cases.
Endometriosis in the nasal cavity is of particular interest in terms of the occurrence of bleeding. With this disease, the mucous membrane of the nasal sinuses is constantly degenerating, which is characteristic of the inner lining of the uterus. In this regard, women with this disease have epistaxis every time menstruation arrives.
Bleeding with nervous strain and mental fatigue is provoked by a violation of the regulation of the tone of blood vessels and constant pressure surges. In this case, blood secretion can occur when the posture is changed while lying down, when getting out of bed, while torso is tilted to the side. It is accompanied by an increase in blood pressure.
Prevention of nosebleeds
If adults or children often bleed from the nose, while bruises occur on the body, gums bleed or a headache, it is necessary to establish the exact cause of the pathology.
First of all, you should contact the ENT. To establish the causes of the problem, a specialist will examine the nasal cavity - there may be foreign bodies, polyps, neoplasms, appoint a blood test to determine its coagulability and platelet count.
It is also advisable to seek advice from an endocrinologist, immunologist, hematologist, oncologist. Specialists will conduct diagnostic tests and prescribe the necessary course of treatment.
To prevent bleeding in adults and children from 3 years of age, ascorutin (a complex preparation with vitamins C and P) is used in the preventive doses indicated in the instructions.
Strengthen the delicate surface of the mucosa by massage. Every day in the morning and evening:
1. Tap the knuckles in the center of the nose bridge
2. Using the pads of the index fingers, stroke the nasal mucosa at its base with rotational movements
3. Tap the wings of the nose - first lightly, then gradually increase the pressure
4. At the end of the procedure, lubricate the nasal mucosa with petroleum jelly.
An excellent strengthening effect has respiratory gymnastics. It is necessary to inhale and exhale strongly several times, then repeat the exercise, alternately clamping the nostrils. After this, alternate inhalation with the nostrils clamped, holding the air for inhalation for 5 seconds.
It is very useful to rinse the nose with solutions of sea salt, soda, iodine, infusions of herbs, especially chamomile.
It should also be constantly:
• Eat and relax fully
• Maintain a comfortable humidity in living quarters, especially in the children's room, - 60-70%
• Make sure that babies do not stick fingers and small objects in their nose
• Infants wear “anti-scratch” mittens.
The causes of most episodes of epistaxis can be easily identified and eliminated, but they can be a symptom of serious illnesses or a consequence of neglect of one’s health. Situations are dangerous when blood spurts from the nose, this is accompanied by pain and general weakness - urgent medical attention is required here. If bleeding is constantly recurring, you can not do without a visit to the doctor. Be attentive to the signals of your body and be healthy!
Treatment of nosebleeds should begin with the diagnosis of diseases and pathological processes that led to the development of this symptom.
First aid for nosebleeds
Depending on the type of bleeding, its profusion and duration, therapeutic measures are selected to eliminate it.
|Self-help measures, or until medical bleeding stops||Medical therapeutic methods to stop bleeding|
|1. It is necessary to adopt a semi-sitting posture. Feet should be lowered. This position will reduce stress in the vessels of the brain.|
2. The head should be turned in the opposite direction from the sinus with which the blood flows.
3. Throwing your head back during nosebleeds is strictly prohibited. In this position of the head, blood can begin to flow into the respiratory passages.
4. Insert a cotton or gauze swab into the bleeding nostril, which must be moistened in a solution of hydrogen peroxide.
|1. The implementation of therapeutic measures, which are indicated in self-help measures.|
2. Tamponade of the front of the sinus, which involves the deep introduction of a gauze or cotton swab into the sinus.
3. Burning of the mucous membranes of the nose.
4. Tamponade of the back walls. A rather complicated procedure, which involves the introduction of a gauze swab in both sinuses.
5. A complete physical examination, passing all the necessary tests to diagnose the root cause that caused the bleeding.
6. The introduction of drugs that stop bleeding, and strengthen the walls of blood vessels.
7. Measures aimed at stabilizing pressure indicators (if there are signs of a constant increase).
Bleeding from the nasal sinuses in a child and an adult can be both a relatively normal condition caused by the physiological characteristics of the body and may indicate severe diseases of the internal organs and circulatory system.
With constant bleeding from the nose, it is necessary to undergo a complete medical examination, and identify the cause of its appearance. But to search for the causes of nosebleeds is necessary only when it was stopped, and with its regular repetition.
Negative environmental factors
Blood comes from the nose because the mucous membrane is affected by increased dryness of the air, its high temperature. It is required to change the conditions, then the problem will be fixed by itself.
But until then, there may be frequent episodes. At the same time, it is not always about the microclimate in the house. It is possible that the natural conditions in the place of residence influence this.
Patients are advised to change the region of permanent residence. If this is not possible, consultation with an otolaryngologist will not hurt. It is necessary to strengthen the vessels.
With the help of an air conditioner, it is possible to adjust the humidity artificially at home.
The formation of benign neoplasms in the nasal passages. The prevalence of the pathological process is relatively large. 1 case per 300-400 people, although most patients are unaware of the problem.
Neoplasia is almost not prone to malignant transformation. Although there are many reports of the degeneration of the polyp into cancer. The probability depends on its initial type, because there are several types of the named tumor structure.
With systematic bleeding, it makes sense to consult an otolaryngologist for an examination of the nasal passages. Often polyps are located deep, which does not allow them to be seen with the naked eye.
The clinical picture also helps in the diagnosis. In addition to bleeding, a chronic violation of nasal breathing, sinus pain, a feeling of heaviness in the facial area is detected.
Therapy is to remove the polyp surgically. It is also a measure of oncology prevention in the future.
Atrophy of the nasal mucosa
It occurs against the background of a constant inflammatory process. The use of vasoconstrictive drops or aggressive hygiene (for example, washing in a systematic manner).
Against the background of a running process, blood often flows from the nose, because the capillaries are in a state of spasm, or even change structure due to a constant negative effect.
Pathology is not treated. But it is possible to correct the disorder with minimally invasive methods. In the future, it remains only to maintain the achieved result.
Hereditary or genetically determined blood diseases
This is a violation of coagulation factors. These are special substances responsible for coagulation and stopping the flow of liquid tissue.
A classic example of the pathology of this group is hemophilia. The disorder affects all vessels without exception. Therefore, talking only about the nose is not necessary.
Constant therapeutic procedures are needed to somehow alleviate the condition. Guarantees of success, however, they do not give.
Fortunately, a similar cause of nosebleeds is found in no more than 0.8-1.2% of cases. According to statistics.
Diabetes mellitus, hormonal changes, problems with the thyroid gland, adrenal glands (tumor-pheochromocytoma, in which jumps in blood pressure are observed).
In this case, manifestations of epistaxis are adjacent to the symptoms of the underlying disorder.
Malignant neoplasms in the airways
They are relatively rare. They give abundant and constant episodes of the described condition.
There is also pus in the discharge, the cell breakdown products. It has a dirty brownish tint and a sharp putrid smell.
The causes of nosebleeds in adults and children are identical, these are organic or random, episodic factors. In the first case, diagnosis is required to exclude dangerous pathologies or, confirming them, to select timely treatment.
How to stop bleeding?
To stop nosebleeds on your own is simple, but you need to strictly adhere to the algorithm.
Throwing back your head or lying down is strictly prohibited. Possible leakage of blood into the respiratory tract and asphyxiation.
All first aid takes 5-10 minutes. In the absence of effect, the procedures continue, but necessarily cause urgency.
Perhaps the reason lies deeper than it seems. It may be dangerous.
Surveys to pass
Diagnosis is not very difficult. Activities are as follows:
You may also need an MRI or CT scan. Identify all structural changes. Including tumor. As necessary, the list is expanded.
Therapy is needed only if pathological factors are detected.
Some pathologies, in principle, are not amenable to treatment.
Bleeding from the nose is not a harmless problem. It is provoked by a mass of factors, and with regular relapses, examination and treatment are necessary.
List of literature used in the preparation of the material:
Zhurova O.N., Kunitsky V.S., Podpalov V.P. Epistaxis in general practice. Training method. allowance. - Vitebsk: Voronezh State Medical University, 2016
Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The standard of specialist medical care for nosebleeds.
Watch the video: Nosebleeds epistaxis: causes, prevention, treatments, and more (April 2020).